Table of Contents

Phylloscopus(Leaf Warblers). 1

Chiffchaff (P. collybita)充充..充充充充充

Iberian Chiffchaff (P. humei)?充充充充充

Willow warbler (P. trochilus)充充充...充充

Wood warbler (P.sibilatrix)充充充充...

Western Bonelli's warbler (P.bonelli)充充充充

Yellow-browed warbler (P. inornatus)充充充充

Pallas' warbler (P. proregulus)充充充充..充

Hume's warbler (P. humei)充充充充充充

Greenish warblers (P. trochiloides etc.)充充充....

Arctic warbler (P.borealis)充充充充充...充


Phylloscopus (Leaf Warblers)

Leaf-warblers are small insectivorous birds belonging to the genus Phylloscopus.

This was formerly placed in the "Catch-all" Old World warbler family, but is now moved into a new family Phylloscopidae (Alstrdi)et al. 2006). There are presently some 55 species in the genus, but this created anomalies making it polyphyletic with regards to Seicercus & some other genera. ?/span>Several species will soon be moved out of the present genus.

Phylloscopus are active, constantly moving, warblers always associated with trees, though normally in fairly open woodland rather than closely planted ones. They occur from top of the canopy to the under-storey. Most of the species are markedly territorial both in their summer and winter quarters.

Many are greenish or brownish above and off-white or yellowish below. Compared to some other "warblers", their songs are very simple

Species breeding in temperate regions are usually strongly migratory.

Wikipedia - ?/span>Leaf-warbler




The Common Chiffchaff, or more usually, the Chiffchaff, Phylloscopus collybita,


a common and widespread leaf-warbler which breeds in open woodlands throughout northern and temperate Europe and Asia.


a migratory passerine which winters in southern and western Europe, southern Asia and north Africa. Greenish-brown above and off-white below, it is named onomatopoeically for its simple chiff-chaff song. It has a number of subspecies, some of which are now treated as full species. The female builds a domed nest on or near the ground, and assumes most of the responsibility for brooding and feeding the chicks, whilst the male has little involvement in nesting, but defends his territory against rivals, and attacks potential predators.

A small insectivorous bird, it is subject to predation by mammals, such as cats and mustelids, and birds, particularly hawks of the genus Accipiter.


P. ibericus, the Iberian Chiffchaff

is brighter, greener on the rump, and yellower below than P. collybita ?/span>and has a tit-tit-tit-tswee-tswee song. ?/span>It was initially named P. brehmii, but the type specimen of that taxon is not an Iberian Chiffchaff!! ?/span>?/span>This species is found in Portugal and Spain, west of a line stretching roughly from the western Pyrenees ?/span>via the mountains of central Spain to the Mediterranean; the Iberian and Common Chiffchaffs co-occur in a narrow band along this line. ?/span>Apart from the northernmost section, the precise course of the contact zone is not well-documented. A long-distance migrant, this species winters in western Africa. It differs from P. c. collybita in vocalisations, ?/span>external morphology, 쯳pan>and mtDNA sequences.

Chiffchaffࠠࠠࠠ࠼/span>Song - Iberian

The Willow Warbler (Phylloscopus trochilus)

a very common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds throughout northern and temperate Europe and Asia, from Ireland east to the Anadyr River basin in eastern Siberia. It is strongly migratory, with almost all of the population wintering in sub-Saharan Africa.༯span>Willow Warblers prefer young, open, scrubby woodland with small trees, including human-altered habitats such as coppice and young plantations up to 10?0 years old and usually less than 5m tall. ?/span>High amounts of birch, alder and willow, with good lichen amounts, and water features (e.g. streams), fields with large amounts of bracken and mosses, and patches of low bramble (for nest cover) are preferred, but it will use a wide range of other species, including young or open coniferous forests.??/span>

Incorporating woodland ride edge thickets is beneficial, as is 15 metre woodland edges of varying structure and height. They prefer damp woodland areas. Thicket forming shrubs like blackthorn provide pockets of habitat. Deer browsing can degrade the required low cover.??/span>In England this species has on average decreased in population by 70% within the last 25 years, with the biggest declines in the southeast.??/span>In Scotland some increases have occurred.

Willow warblerࠠࠠ?Song


The Wood Warbler ( Phylloscopus sibilatrix )

a common and widespread leaf warbler which breeds throughout northern and temperate Europe, and just into the extreme west of Asia in the southern Ural Mountains. This warbler is strongly migratory and the entire population winters in tropical Africa. In the British Isles (largely absent from Ireland) ?/span>there has been a dramatic decrease in populations? c 43%?over 5 years.

There are now very few north of the Thames and east of a line from the Severn to the Humber; possibly a third of Britain's birds breed in Wales. CBC indices show fluctuations but there is recent evidence for a very worrying decline of 43% in the five-year BBS index (1994-1998). On its way out from East Anglia and some other areas. ?/span>(Mead, 2000)

This is a bird of open but shady mature woodlands, such as beech and sessile oak, with some sparse ground cover for nesting. The nest, domed and similar to that of the Willow warbler (P.trochilus), ?/span>is usually built on the ground in low shrub.

Wood warblerࠠࠠ༯span>Song

Western Bonelli's Warbler

Was formerly regarded as the western subspecies of a wider "Bonelli's Warbler" species, but as a result of modern taxonomic developments, this species is now usually considered to be two species (Sangster et al. 2002, Parkin 2003):

The breeding ranges of the two species do not overlap; while their appearance and songs are very similar, the calls are completely different . They also show marked difference in mtDNA sequence (Helbig et al. 1995).

The species is migratory, wintering in sub-Saharan Africa. It is a rare vagrant in Northern Europe.

Western Bonelli's Warbler is a small passerine bird, found in forest and woodland. 4-6 eggs are laid in a nest on the ground.

Western Bonelli's warblerࠠ쯳pan>ࠠࠠ?Video linkࠠ쯳pan>


Yellow-browed Warbler or Inornate Warbler (Phylloscopus inornatus)

?/span>is a leaf warbler (family Phylloscopidae) which breeds in temperate Asia. This warbler is strongly migratory and winters in tropical Southeast Asia. Like most similar birds, it was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

It was formerly considered to comprise of three subspecies, but humei and mandellii are now split as a separate species (Hume's Leaf Warbler), leaving P. inornatus monotypic. The two sister species differ slightly but consistently in morphology, bioacoustics, and molecular characters.

It is amongst the most regular of Siberian Phylloscopus wanderers in Western Europe.

Yellow-browed warblers are smaller and greener on the upper-parts than the Willow warbler (P.trochilus). It has a broad yellow supercilium and a conspicuous double yellow wing-bar. It behaves like other Phylloscopus warblers and this together with the eye-stripe distinguishes it from a Goldcrest (R. regulus ).?It flicks both wings and tail and often feeds in a manner similar to?a Flycatcher.

Yellow-browed warblerࠠࠠࠠࠠ?Song


Pallas's Warbler or Pallas's Leaf Warbler (Phylloscopus proregulus)

?/span>is a leaf warbler which breeds in southern Siberia, Mongolia and parts of Tibet and China. It is strongly migratory and winters in subtropical Asia.

This is a bird of coniferous mountain woodlands. The nest is built in a tree. Like most Old World warblers, this small passerine is insectivorous.

This tiny warbler is prone to vagrancy as far as western Europe in late October and November, despite a 3000 km distance from its breeding grounds. For example, this species occurs in late autumn in Great Britain regularly enough that it is not classified as rare there.?This is one of the smallest warblers, and shares greenish upper-parts and off-white under-parts with typical leaf warblers. However, this is a little jewel of a bird, with prominent double wing bars, supercilia and crown stripe, and a lemon-yellow rump.

This bird is not shy, but its arboreal life style makes it difficult to observe. It is constantly in motion, and often hovers briefly, like a kinglet. Its song is powerful and Canary-like.

Pallas's warblerࠠࠠࠠࠠOspan>Song

Hume's Leaf-warbler or Hume's Warbler (Phylloscopus humei)

?/span>a small leaf warbler which breeds in the mountains of inner Asia. This warbler is migratory and winters mainly in India.

This bird is named after Allan Octavian Hume. Like most similar songbirds, it was formerly included in the "Old World warbler" assemblage.

Hume's Leaf-warbler is one of the smallest "Old World warblers". Like most other leaf warblers, it has greenish upper-parts and off-white under-parts. With its long supercilium, crown stripe and yellow-margined tertial remiges, it is very similar to the Yellow-browed Warbler (P. inornatus). However, it has only one prominent light wing bar, just a faint vestige of the second shorter wing bar, pale greyish-olive and lacking in contrast with the mantle and scapulars and overall duller colours. It also has a dark lower mandible and legs.

Its song is buzzing and high pitched. The best distinction from the Yellow-browed Warbler is the more disyllabic call. While the Eastern and Western Hume's Leaf Warblers already show noticeable differences in mtDNA sequence and calls, their songs do not differ; they are reproductively isolated only by allopatry and not usually considered separate species.

Hume's Leaf-warblerࠠࠠOspan>Song

Greenish Warbler and Green Warbler (Phylloscopus trochiloides)

?/span>are widespread leaf-warblers throughout their breeding range in north-eastern Europe and temperate to subtropical continental Asia. This warbler is strongly migratory and winters in India. It is not uncommon as a spring or early autumn vagrant in Western Europe and is annually seen in Great Britain. In Central Europe large numbers of vagrant birds are encountered in some years; some of these may stay to breed, as a handful of pairs does each year in Germany.[1]

Like all leaf-warblers, it was formerly placed in the "Old World warbler" assemblage, but now belongs to the new leaf-warbler family Phylloscopidae.

This is a typical leaf-warbler in ?/span>?/span>appearance, greyish-green above and off-white below. The single wing bar found in the southern and western populations distinguishes them from most similar species (except Arctic Warbler P. borealis). It is slightly smaller than that species and has a thinner bill, without a dark tip to the lower mandible. A latitude-based analysis of wintering birds indicated that more northerly P. trochiloides are smaller, i.e. this species does not seem to following Bergmann's rule? Its song is a high jerky trill, in some populations containing a sequence of down- and more rarely up - ?/span>slurred notes.

It breeds in lowland deciduous or mixed forest; non-breeding birds in the warmer parts of its range may move to montane habitat in summer. Individuals from southeast of the Himalayas are for example quite often seen in Bhutan during the hot months, typically in humid Bhutan Fir (Abies densa) forest up to about 3,800 meters ASL or more, but they do not breed there and return again to the adjacent subtropical lowlands in winter.

Greenish warblersࠠࠠࠠ࠼/span>Song

Arctic Warbler, Phylloscopus borealis,

a widespread leaf warbler in birch or mixed birch forest near water throughout its breeding range in Fennoscandia and northern Asia. It has established a foothold in North America, breeding in Alaska.

The nest is on the ground in a low shrub. Like most Old World warblers, this small passerine is insectivorous.

This warbler is strongly migratory; the entire population winters in southeast Asia. It therefore has one of the longest migrations of any Old World insectivorous bird.

This is a typical leaf warbler in appearance, greyish-green above and off-white below. Its single wing bar distinguishes it from most similar species except the Greenish Warbler, Phylloscopus trochiloides. It is larger than that species and has a heavier, dagger-like bill, with a dark tip to the lower mandible. It has a robust appearance with a large head and stout neck.??/span>Its song is a fast trill.

This species occurs as an autumn vagrant in western Europe and is annual in Great Britain.

Arctic warblerࠠࠠ༯span>Song